石雕牌坊的设计详解
栏目:石雕知识3 发布时间:2019-02-20
Detailed design of stone carving archway

    楼:《说文解字》称"楼,重屋也。"本意指两层以上的房屋,可以作为居住之用,亦可以作其它用途,如石雕牌楼等。

  石雕牌坊牌楼;明楼:位居中间层的楼称为明楼,又称正楼、主楼。正楼主楼是石雕图案雕刻精细的地方,浮雕图案都比较深在5公分左右,雕刻题材一般都是石雕石狮子石雕麒麟雕刻、龙凤图案等吉祥图案。

  石雕牌坊牌楼;次楼:明楼左右两边的楼称为次楼,通常低于明楼。这个地方雕刻图案一般都在1-3公分,牌楼、牌坊题材,有吉祥花鸟、石雕貔貅雕刻、如意、宝相花、吉祥花草等浮雕

  夹楼:石雕牌坊牌楼的明楼和次楼之间比较矮小的楼称为夹楼。夹楼一般出现在比较负复杂的石雕牌坊石雕牌楼中,像三门三楼、五门五楼的石雕牌坊就没有夹楼,三门七楼、三门五楼、五门九楼等石雕牌坊都有夹楼。

  正脊:楼顶前后两个斜坡相交而成的楼脊称为正脊。

  龙吻:又称鸥吻,正脊两端带有短尾的兽头装饰件,特征是张口吞脊,尾部翘卷。据《事物纪原》《青箱杂纪》载;"海有鱼,尾似鸥,用以喷则降雨。汉柏梁台灾,越巫水厌胜之法,起建昌宫,设鸦鱼之像于屋脊,即今之鸥吻是也。"相传石雕鸥吻能避火镇灾。其外形似鸥尾,身内完全为一条蟠屈上弯的龙所占据,实则应称为龙吻。为防止龙吻逃回大海,因而在它的背上插有一把宝剑,使其不能腾飞。明代的石雕龙吻雕制较细,背上的剑把已改为象征隆的,卷瓣向前斜,石雕牌坊牌楼上的龙吻雕刻的两目正视前方。清代剑把卷瓣多直立正卷,二目侧视。




Lou: Shuowen Jiezi is called "Lou, heavy house". "This means that houses with more than two stories can be used for residential purposes or for other purposes, such as stone carving archways.
           
Stone carving archway; Ming Lou: The middle floor of the building is called Ming Lou, also known as the main building and the main building. The main building of the main building is a place with fine stone carving patterns. The relief patterns are deep about 5 cm. The carving subjects are generally stone carving, lion stone carving, Unicorn carving, dragon and Phoenix carving and other auspicious patterns.           

Stone carving archway; Second floor: The buildings on the left and right sides of the Ming Building are called the second floor, which is usually lower than the Ming Building. The local carving patterns are generally 1-3 cm, archway theme, auspicious flowers and birds, stone carving mink carving, Ruyi, Baoxianghua, auspicious flowers and plants and other reliefs.           

Jialou: The smaller building between the Ming Building and the Second Building of the Stone Carving Archway is called Jialou. Jialou usually appears in the relatively complex stone carving archway, such as the stone carving archway on the third and fifth floors of Sanmen, there is no Jialou, and stone carving archways on the seventh, fifth and ninth floors of Sanmen have Jialou.  

Ridge: The ridge formed by the intersection of two slopes at the front and back of the roof is called the ridge.           

Dragon kiss: also known as gull kiss, the main ridge with short tail at both ends of the animal head decoration, characterized by mouth swallowing ridge, tail curling. According to "Things Jiyuan" and "Qingxiang Zaji", there are fish in the sea and gulls in the tail. Hanbo Liangtai disaster, the more witches and water are tired of winning the law, to build Changgong Palace, like crows on the roof, that is, today's gull kiss is also. "It is said that the stone carved gull kiss can avoid fire and calamity. It resembles the tail of a gull and is occupied entirely by a curving dragon. In fact, it should be called a dragon kiss. In order to prevent the Dragon kiss from escaping back to the sea, a sword was inserted on its back to prevent it from taking off. Ming Dynasty Stone Carving Dragon kiss carving system is relatively fine, the sword handle on the back has been changed to symbolize the long, rolled petals forward oblique, stone carving archway on the Dragon kiss carving eyes to face the front. In the Qing Dynasty, the blades of sword handles were mostly upright and straight, with two eyes looking sideways.